Tuesday, May 31, 2016

Long-term unemployed in Germany – The written off – Germany Kultur

By Ulrike Köppchen hear


Customize vacancies and qualifications of the long-term unemployed not together? (Pa / dpa / Stratenschulte)

The economy is booming, new jobs are being created. And yet, the more than a million long-term unemployed in Germany have virtually no chance of a job. Among the biggest “obstacles to placement” belongs unemployment itself – makes it in the long run often ill

“The labor market in April is dominated by the spring revival Unemployment has continued to fall and the demand for labor is to.. remains high. “

Nürnberg, end of April. The Federal Employment Agency presents its monthly labor market data. For some time, the messages from the labor market sound euphoric – although many expect that unemployment will rise again in the course of the year because of immigration. But first is celebrated: In some regions full employment – more is not possible

600,000 vacancies! A record-low unemployment, since reunification, anyway. The number of social insurance contributions increases.

“It thus signals in the sum a good view of the labor market in the coming months.”

There is no question, the upturn in the labor market is there. But not all benefit. Especially, who was a year or more, and thus is considered long-term unemployed, it has very hard to put in professional life back foot.

“We have, in principle, as a two-tier development the decline in unemployment. “

Says political scientist Sabrina Bersheim of the University of Koblenz.

” the people who are unemployed just not so long referring also unemployment compensation because the degradation is holding quite well preceded. and among those are just a long time unemployed and are located in the Hartz IV system, because this is much more difficult.

37.4 percent Lanzeitarbeitslose

Even though there are fewer and fewer unemployed in Germany, but including more and more people that are a year or more without work. Meanwhile, according to official figures 37.4 percent of the unemployed long-term unemployed. Actually, there are even more, says Sabrina Bersheim. Because with a few statistical peculiarities will the number kept artificially small.

Whenever the Federal employment Agency presented its figures for the labor market situation is also Sabrina Bersheim active:. the young political scientist responsible for the project “Original sound labor market”, a collaboration between the University of Koblenz and the Evangelical Association for Labour and social inclusion

“It’s basically a matter that we want to offer an alternative to the official report of the Federal government, the BMAS and the Federal employment Agency, because the official labor market report is also interest-driven, highly complicated even partial and individual aspects, especially in terms of unemployment and long-term unemployment, not so clearly illustrates how we see, and we want to just offer an alternative. “

Approximately one million long-term unemployed, there are, according to official counts now. will Relieves Statistics by so-called “harmful interruptions”.

“If a person who is long-term unemployed, took part in a labor market policy measure or longer was on sick leave than six weeks or a child has maintained or relatives, then one falls from the statistics, therefore, after this time the statistic is counting him as Neuarbeitslosen. Although has since not changed their status, long-term unemployment, de facto, it makes them short-term unemployed. “

How many long-term unemployed actually are in Germany, do not know Sabrina Bersheim. Whether 1.1 million or maybe 1.2 or 1.3 million long-term unemployed – there are definitely too many. Who are these people?

For 20 years, no social security job

Berlin-Neukölln. A residence of the 1920s. Ali Can (name changed, the real name is withheld) is on the way to a client. Twice a week he visits here an old lady goes shopping with her or to the doctor. Or just walk.

The old lady sits already late fine and ready to leave in a wheelchair, with blue flowered dress and gold jewelry on his fingers.

Every morning comes by a nursing service, otherwise the woman alone all day. In conversation, she emphasized how grateful she was that Ali and a colleague twice seen in the week after her and spend time with her.

Ali Can is in her 50s, is from Turkey and has lived since the early 1980s in Germany. Recently he works as a so-called mobility aids for elderly and sick people. has made possible that started the program Social participation in the labor market, the Federal Labour Minister Andrea Nahles last year. This program particularly hard to place long-term unemployed are to be used again to work: people who have health problems or who are especially unemployed. Ali Can is such a case. He had his last social insurance job more than 20 years ago.

“My aunt has since worked in this factory, which was a pharmaceutical factory, and they spoke to me, said, now with us is people set, write times an application. I have it written, I went, they have set me right. “

” That was true with tax card, you have as well earned? ”

“Full well deserved at the time. I have only worked alone four years at night. night shift allowance. At that time was also this Berlin allowance. was really good money. More than 3,000 marks. Was good. “

Can Ali pushing the wheelchair through the supermarket. The old lady wants to buy supplies for the weekend.

“It is one of the lightest. One can very well talk to her and she’s nice somehow, is not difficult. But there are also very difficult clients, clients who have dementia, and which of course you have problems. But then again, remain very patient, which is not always so easy. “

Better than a one Euro job

30 hours per week working Ali Can now and who every day two to three clients. After many years of Hartz IV, he now has a contract until 2018 and will be paid according to minimum wage.

“So financially … bit you have more, but basically you do not feel as if you would be the first labor market. But anyway, it is much, much better than this one-euro job. ”

After losing his job in the 1990s because his department was disbanded, he has for many years not working but living on unemployment benefits and social assistance.

“Only back in early 2000 or so I slowly … thought so it can not go on, must be something to do. it was not until I made this Turkish food specialties Tutorial, a year, so I’ve learned to cook, but that’s no easy job. I thought, well. Then getting any action from the job center, any courses I took part and 2008 I care base course made and at the same time care assistant, so what I do now. I also have certificates. “

but none of them resulted in a regular employment, but only to new one-euro jobs, mostly in the elderly care. Even Ali’s colleague is long-term unemployed and lurches years of a labor market policy measure for the next

Ali and his colleague talk about measures of the job center.

“Then you look further. then comes something else -. something always comes -. the always change the name -. But then again a year out -. Only meant as civil work, then usually some blah … – AGH I have already made -. Yes, exactly. “

the two hauling the wheelchair with the old lady to the apartment on the mezzanine floor. No easy task for the 55-year-old Ali – but he wants to make this work

“I would hope that I will be employed here, for example, sometimes solid, where I work now or. way. That would be great. Otherwise … what can you want? More money. Every now and then go vacation, which I have not done forever. Even 18 years ago. The last time I was in 1998. “

These are fairly modest wishes. But even the most unlikely to be fulfilled. Ali Can is one of the most labor market Person: Without university degree and professional training he never got on the German labor market over unskilled jobs

“No, I never believed in it that I can do something here. what can be professionally. is that perhaps in the education. No idea. but it is so. maybe I need a psychologist, not Administrator. “

job seekers wait on  30.03.2005 in the hall of its own operation for  work in Merseburg. (Waltraud Grubitzsch) long-term unemployed have little chance of re-entry into the labor market. (Waltraud Grubitzsch)

Typical “obstacles to placement”

Older, no vocational training, immigrant background – such features are typical of a long-term unemployed. In the jargon of the Federal Employment Agency that is “obstacles to placement”. Sabrina Bersheim:.

“These are then the factors that make it difficult for him to find a job This task includes, for example, older age, ie over 50 to be a single parent, caring responsibilities have to have a migration background and especially to have a missing or low skill. and a very important point are just too physical disabilities. for long-term unemployed usually more of these factors come together, and which make the people of course simply the job search. “

About half of the long-term unemployed has no or only a very low professional qualification. Others may have an education, but it is outdated. so far only simple activities are suitable for many long-term unemployed. And there is on the German labor market is less. Some labor market experts, this is only half the story. For there may well still be jobs for unskilled workers: almost every fifth vacancy is in the range of helper activities. This does not mean that only apply Unskilled for such activities. Because – shortage of skilled labor or not – many qualified people can not find work at the level of their training. Sigrid Betzelt, Professor of Social Sciences at the University of Economics and Law in Berlin:

“The structures of the labor market have still other problematic indicator which engage again in the problem of long-term unemployment that yes very many of these so-called simple activities – at trucking companies, the delivery service, across many service sectors – be made of overqualified people who, in some cases have a vocational training even a university education, which carry out simple activities that naturally loose someone without such training could perform. “

But the employer rather provide people with a completed vocational training one, even if this has technically nothing to do with the advertised position.

“Someone who has already completed training provided is deemed reliable, performance-oriented and so on. While people who do not have, as less motivated are assessed less powerful. But this is basically a discrimination against people who have not done for various reasons. That’s partly indeed young people who simply would need an entry in the labor market and then could qualify one parallel also. That is because these two problematic labor market structures of unterwertiger employment and long-term unemployment are a perfect match. “

One of the biggest hurdles for long-term unemployed back to work, the unemployment themselves. They changed the concerned .

long-term unemployment causes illness

“Once they naturally suffer the most materially very difficult situation. Then long-term unemployment often with health risks associated, so strong emotional stress by this exclusion from society tends, which may also be accompanied by physical symptoms. “

… says the labor market expert Sigrid Betzelt. It is a vicious circle, from which come the victims usually barely. Many are unemployed because they have health problems and are not powerful enough. But unemployment itself makes them even sicker and even less efficient.

Adamy : “And what makes people, if you constantly looking for work, there is no stable employment, is busy today, tomorrow is unemployed again, the day after tomorrow again in a one-euro job, then unemployed again, then maybe in temporary work, which brings enormous effort on the one hand with it, but also leads that you can not also come from a financially tight situation. “

Wilhelm Adamy, board member of the DGB and there for labor market policies responsible.

hopeless, exhausted, resigned

researchers have examined how long-term unemployment changed the person concerned and this typical pattern found. Who is unemployed, first trying most intense, back to work. If that does not he exist or sometime down and stops looking

Betzelt:. “People are desperate, are exhausted, the identity breaks slowly in together, and that makes the people were, nor resigned. at the same time they continue to suffer from under this loss of status, ie, it is not that the people would be fully reconciled at this stage, then, yes, it so are doing quite well, but they continue to suffer still very much under this perceived as a loss of status loss of self, quasi their own identity. “

Finally, many long-term unemployed pull back completely from the company.

“This is individually rational. to just not to be constantly faced with the ‘deficit’, to ‘set up’, I’d say so commonly …”

… in environments where they are more or less to themselves. In which for many a one euro or mini-job is the greatest feeling and in which specify adolescents seriously as career aspirations “Hartz IV”. The objective is not only that they do not know it from their parents differently. They also suspect that it is hardly worthwhile for them to make an effort. Because the social advancement promise – if you’re just hardworking and strives to be at least have their own children even better – no longer works. DGB board member Wilhelm Adamy:

“I myself have eight years attended elementary school and had just started then, on the second chance education further qualifications me, but in our time, you knew the future is positive . occupied youths who attend secondary school today, have a total likely to develop much, much harder, their own talent, as was the case in my time “

between question the author.: But why?! The possibilities are still on the second chance, and it is also encouraged. Anyone who wants can!

“Is it because only the will of the individual or to the environment to be in some ways there? When I grow up in an environment where more social problems are, the greater must his individual effort to get out of this environment can and to have the strength to say, I am focused to actually go my own way. “

” Incredible socially explosive “

For a time the specific issue of long-term unemployment of the policy has been largely ignored – or to put it, that the market will judge it matter if the upturn once is there and again more workers were needed. Meanwhile, it has become clear that this did not work: A difficult or impossible-to-place part of over a million people left over. And no society can afford that are inherited in certain contexts poverty and unemployment growing up a generation without opportunities and prospects, warns sociologist Sigrid Betzelt:

“The simple poses incredible explosives. since you do not have to go up to the terrorist attacks, but also could be seen in this series, which is of economic-economic perspective truly scandalous that one affords there. “

And as long-term unemployment is to be tackled now stronger, it is out of politics. But it works well?

“Andreas Groicher my name. I am the personnel officer of the company Dussmann Service and looking forward that you are here. They are for contract cleaning here …”

The job center in Berlin-Lichtenberg. A sober conference room on the fifth floor with a projector, flip chart and horseshoe-aligned tables. Front of the speaker with his notebook, next to the press secretary and a young blond woman sitting in jeans and Businessjackett.

“Yes, hello! Franziska Janicke my name, am since May 2015 Betriebsakquisiteurin in Job Center Lichtenberg under the ESF program to reduce long-term unemployment. “

Franziska Janickes task is to mediate long-term unemployed in the primary labor market is. It must therefore to find a suitable and interested candidates and to give to other businesses that are willing this a chance. However, according to a survey want to set any long-term unemployed two thirds of the companies. Franziska Janicke also has not only positive experience in the operation acquisition, although the job center pays up to 75 percent wage subsidies to compensate for a possibly long period of familiarization or lower job performance.

“Those who are skeptical which mostly remain skeptical “

… but there are also others:

“. Since I had now only just acquired a company in Facility is -Management active, and since the manager actually said, we take it in part because it is important to give people a chance. because five people who have imagined and now signed three of whom had a contract for two years ., a lady in part-time and two men in full-time “

today will again such a job interview instead: The building service Dussmann wants to hire cleaners. Three candidates are on Franziska Janickes list. Published is one.

Window Washer, labor, labor  market, economic (dpa / pa / Kumm) Even in the low-wage sector, the qualification is often not enough. (Dpa / pa / Kumm)

“What to bring at least – so it also stands high – is motivation What is. , we will see that you can also increase, but without your own motivation, you would not be sitting here today, that at least is there ever a base there, on which you can build … and reliability! “

“on time and reliably take the workplace and because the tasks do, is for the cleaning of buildings, is in principle for all projects in life … whether the work is, you will be able to be so successful. in an industry in which you can learn a lot, you’ll manage your own motivation as well. you just have to want something. Then there for us professionals, you will see the. “

personnel Officer Andreas Although Groicher sounds just like a social worker, but he insists that he is not here because Dussmann good would do. But because it has become increasingly difficult in recent years, despite wage of 9.80 euros, to find staff for cleaning, catering and security.

“We have to occupy a lot of places and they can partially filled. In the service industry, it is precisely such that the staff, which we have just come from a social environment precisely where, for example, a conventional application is already an obstacle. If this obstacle and we this application of may not even get industrious people, we’ll have to go where these people are, and that’s usually just here in the job centers “

” Industrial cleaning -. you have the ever made -?.. Yes Almost a year “

with today’s candidates seem to have Andreas Groicher luck. Even retraining as Glass and window cleaners, the candidate be presented.

“Then you are already a real specialist. Currently we have a place in Marzahn. That would be from Monday to Friday five hours daily, and always starts from 15 o’clock. “

the customer haws around a bit and then puts it out with it. The job is too far away from his home. In public transport it get panic attacks. And, no, he had not a bicycle. No driver’s license, and of course a car.

“Yes, then is of course difficult. Because a body which is for you around the corner, we just do not offer.”

“I’m not from the world.”

“exactly, you are not so out of the world, perhaps there is indeed times something . “

” Good, glad you were there. Maybe we have a chance to get even in the testing. you should also think again, cycling is really a good alternative. “

a drop in the ocean

the ESF program for integrated long-term unemployed in the primary labor market is only one of several special programs on were launched federal or at the state level in the last two years. Undisputed they are not. The most common complaint which is made them symbolic politics. Sabrina Bersheim:

“One can suspect a calculation behind there so if you’re a little angry and says that if you as in launching a special program, then you can media attention PR moderately commercialize. Then you get a lot of attention and can tell you are doing just what the people “

one does what -. but only for a few people. In Jobcenter Lichtenberg example are on the ESF program 200 long-term unemployed get a job. Nationwide, the job center have applied for just 24,000 places. Given more than a million long-term unemployed that is little more than a drop in the bucket. The funding provided for the unemployed after the Hartz IV system, however, has been considerably reduced in recent years.

Adamy: “to be integrated Chances of long-term unemployed, who are dependent on Hartz IV today in the labor market, are worse than in 2007″.

Bersheim: “We have in the last five years a decline in the so-called inclusion budgets – that’s just the money that is provided for the labor market promotion in the Hartz IV system -, a decline of 40 percent at people. that could promote but, there has been a decline of ten percent. So it all depends often from the political argument, of course, we have shortened, but we also have fewer unemployed. but it is just stop all proportion.

In addition, would hardly support actions that led to a vocational certificate, says Sabrina Bersheim It’s all about fast switching

Adamy:.. “Each fifth long-term unemployed who finds a body, they found only in the agency. Then they are but after a relatively short time unemployed. Or they just found a job in commerce or in the hospitality industry, and we have found that the working conditions, the long-term unemployed find it about each is finished fifth after one month. “

Qualification Only is often insufficient

But even if more would be invested in sustainable qualification, alone with labor market policies can not fight long-term unemployment. given the social, physical and psychological problems of those affected must be reinforced. So would the job center and welfare work hand in hand:

Adamy:. “there is quite model tests, where the recruitment agency and the assisting force of the youth office sitting together at a desk

Wilhelm Adamy has so visited a project.

“. I spoke with the people concerned and a single mother, what is special about this model project for the woman who has been placed in work, said: humanity.”

the employment agencies however have recognized that it does not help in some cases to enforce a mediation in the labor market, unless other problems were solved before:

“here, the representative of the Youth Services said: We need the mediation at the moment Reset, because the social stabilization of the household is required then I asked the agent. If you are not sitting here now at the desk, what would you have done then? He said: I would theoretically called the youth services, but I would not have had the time and probably would have imposed sanctions. “

Ultimately, however, can not obscure the fact that not all long-term unemployed in the labor force even the best model projects will incorporate blank. This is also the German Social Law

Betzelt:. “Anyone who can Krauch reasonably and is still capable of three hours a day what to do Efficient, applies here as capable of working.”

and flows so well in the unemployment statistics with a.

“I think that these three hours really a joke. First, we have the labor market not for that, three hours really very marginal, and in other countries it is different, the background is indeed, in Germany, the disability pension’s been very reduced, also the rehabilitation sector, and attempts have been made with all these reversals to relieve the welfare state , but it does obviously not “

Sigrid Betzelt pleads far for thinking to deal with the issue of long-term unemployment all over again:

“. So it would make sense to really make a new charge and to consider: Okay, what do we do with this million? And you have to there already again sort stronger and consider whom you can still motivate them to be trained according to the skills and then to enter the labor market? For whom might a social labor market would be useful? And who would have really berenten? And which one can then also satisfied. “


EU Commission warns against banning Airbnb and Uber – tagesschau.de

The concept of sharing economy enjoys many consumers, but for example, taxi drivers and hotel operator curse over competitors like Uber and Airbnb. In Europe, the services were therefore partially already limited. The EU Commission wants to better protect such offers.

The European Commission wants to extreme financial constraints on the online holiday houses portal Airbnb and Mitfahrdienst Uber in the Member States prevent. The see new guidelines the Brussels authorities for so-called sharing economy before that Reuters had access.

This is warned of an exaggerated action against companies that mediate sharing personal property via the Internet , Any breach of these new services should be justified and proportionate. “Complete bans provide a last resort is that it should be applied only if the protection of public interest can not be achieved with less restrictive regulations,” reads the draft.

means Airbnb with its business model a powerful competitor for the hotel industry, Uber for the taxi industry. The Mitfahrdienst from California is struggling in many countries with legal hurdles and therefore had to partially restrict its range. Also Airbnb is in the crosshairs of criticism. Berlin about going since May strengthened against renting apartments to normal tourists, because the city administration considers thus rents are driven up and living space is lost.


Protest against plans of Deutsche Bahn: The night train to remain – Tagesspiegel

One can strive Billy Wilder and Alfred Hitchcock, Agatha Christie or Pascal Mercier, to prove that a night train is more than to travel from A to B. Or one can count as the German Railways: 2015 has the business with couchette retracted with a turnover of around 90 million euros to a loss of 31 million euros. The last connection is therefore offered in December – after it’s over. “City Night Line: You travel during sleep”, so is the railway company no longer advertise. Even now you can not book many routes. The “niche” as the Group Board says, has become increasingly unprofitable with the part 40 years old night train cars.

“Do you think the ladies and gentlemen not a word,” says Joachim Holstein. “The deficit has not increased, it was enlarged.” Holstein is spokesman of the Economic Committee of the Deutsche Bahn subsidiary DB European Rail Service, which is responsible for operation and service on the night trains. He criticizes the management to have the business expected deliberately unprofitable. Instead of the official number of 1.4 million passengers it had last been 2.6 million when you add count the night train parts appended conventional cars. “On the track the night trains are profitable,” says Holstein, “the deficit arises in web-Tower.”

online petition collected 29,000 votes against

The review is based on broad support in web-friends. On Tuesday Holstein handed an online petition to preserve the car and night trains to the transport committee of the Bundestag. Almost 29 000 voices came together. The petition is part of a campaign against the plans of the web, organized an alliance of traffic experts. On Tuesday, the “Alliance web for all” presented in Berlin the vision of a new, Europe-night train system. “Luna Liner” relies on the cooperation of the major railway operator in Europe and probably in this form probably never become a reality. The initiators it is rather about showing that the infrastructure and the demand would be present to span a network of night trains in Europe – with a theoretical capacity 10000-12000 passengers per night, as Dieter Doege, state chairman of the passenger association Pro Bahn Berlin / Brandenburg,.

Michael Cramer said MEPs of the Greens and Chairman of the transport Committee, considers such an offer climate policy necessary. “A European transport revolution is overdue, and the night trains are indispensable,” he said. A quarter of greenhouse gas emissions come from transport. He was the only sector where emissions were recently increased – by 22 percent – while emissions from industry have fallen by 38 percent. Cramer referred to the “unfair competition”, in which the web stand compared to road or air transport. The latter would preferably in the tax policy. With the reduction of its offer “rolls the path the red carpet for their worst competitors from” Cramer said

GDL boss Weselsky:. Web can not do what they want

Sharp went Claus Weselsky, head of the train drivers’ union GDL, not only by rail, but also with the policy to task. “You have to remember that the web is owned by the Federation,” he said. The railway management can not “do what it wants.” The MPs stood now in the duty to represent the interests of the common good. Reigning Railway Board has the task to “correct mistakes” that were taken by managers who are no longer in office. “Night trains are a political issue, not internal matter of the web”, Sabine Leidig Weselsky agreed. The transport policy spokesperson of the Left parliamentary group called the Transport Committee to prevent the closure plans of the web

If this does not work, have -. Rumor – Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB) interest in parts of the rail offer to take over. In the next few weeks, ÖBB will comment. Already serviced ÖBB Night Train trails in Germany – approximately from Vienna to Berlin or Munich. According to Winfried Wolf, editor of Campaign magazine “LunaPark21″, the night train business accounts for around 15 percent of sales in ÖBB-distance traffic. The Austrians also wanted to invest 30 million euros in the business field. The expansion was still decided by Christian Kern, who was recently elected Austrian Chancellor.


German Bank: John Cryan clears up – SPIEGEL ONLINE

The German bank makes in its reconstruction according to CEO John Cryan progress. The money house had separated by hundreds of thousands customers and its IT systems easier, the Briton said at an investor conference.

In addition, Germany’s biggest bank could soon scandals by comparisons from the world create. “We are coming closer to financial statements,” Cryan said. “We make three to four fronts progress”. He was confident that the bank could end up as targeted settle the biggest litigation. These include money-laundering allegations in Russia and controversial mortgage business in the US.

Before a possible exit of Britain from the EU itself, the bank does not need to fear, according to Cryan. “We are a German bank – and Germany will not leak out until now.” In a Proposed referendum on United Kingdom membership of the European Union, the German bank would have to stop, however, like all financial institutions to market turmoil.

The Frankfurt want to try to protect themselves as well as possible against market fluctuations. “We turn to the defensive mode,” Cryan said. He would relocate for a Proposed referendum on United Kingdom membership of the European Union in the long run businesses from London to continental Europe. “Our customers want then probably no longer acting government bonds of euro zone countries in London”. The institute employs in the UK more than 8,000 people, including many investment bankers.

Renewed losses expected

Due to the restructuring in the current year, the German bank could again red numbers Write, the CEO said. The restructuring, which should be by the end largely complete, stand 2016 but in the foreground. It is important that the Bank slimmer lays and would withdraw from little profitable areas, say the eleven months acting CEO. In the past year, the bank had closed more than 750,000 accounts.

Even with the planned closure of 200 branches in Germany and the associated elimination of 4000 jobs Cryan will soon have clarity. Negotiations with the works council had “terribly long” attracted, he said. The uncertainty of who has to go at the end, expresses many of the approximately 100,000 employees worldwide on the mood.

The talks with the works befänden now but in the final stages, Cryan said. “I am confident that we will reach an agreement in the next one to two months and then can move forward with the branch closures and job losses”.

At the same time, the bank is looking for alternatives to an IPO of Postbank , “Although we could pull an IPO, but we want it now not because I believe that the price that we would achieve for our shareholders not attractive would,” Cryan said. Therefore, the bank should wait for a better climate for IPOs – or search for “more creative ways” to separate from their participation. “But the bank is for sale,” he said.


In the case of Proposed referendum on United Kingdom membership of the European Union German bank plans deducting transactions from London – manager-magazin.de


  London  Financial district: & quot; Our customers. want  government bonds of euro-zone countries in the  event of a Proposed referendum on United Kingdom  membership of the European Union no longer  believed in London acting & quot ;, says John  Cryan. The German bank chief would then relocate  businesses from London to continental Europe


 London financial district: “Our customers want may no longer act government bonds of euro-zone countries in the event of a Proposed referendum on United Kingdom membership of the European Union in London,” says John Cryan. The German bank chief would then stores from London to continental Europe embarrassed

John Cryan is proceeding in the conversion of Deutsche Bank. At an investor conference Cryan also described how the German Bank will proceed in the case of a “Proposed referendum on United Kingdom membership of the European Union”


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The Institute had separated by hundreds of thousands of customers and its IT systems easier, said the eleven months acting CEO John Cryan on Tuesday at an investor conference in New York. He also hopes to create some scandals soon by comparisons from the world. “We are coming closer to financial statements,” said the Briton. “We make three to four fronts progress”

Cryan is confident by the end of the biggest disputes -. About money laundering allegations in Russia and controversial mortgage business in the US – settle. Before a possible exit of Britain from the EU itself, the bank need not fear loud Cryan. “We are a German bank -. And Germany will not leak until now”

In a “Proposed referendum on United Kingdom membership of the European Union”, the German bank would adjust but like all financial institutions to market turmoil. The Frankfurt want to try to protect themselves as well as possible against market fluctuations. “We turn to the defensive mode,” said Cryan. He would relocate for a “Proposed referendum on United Kingdom membership of the European Union” in the long run businesses from London to continental Europe.

“Our customers want government bonds of euro-zone countries then probably no longer act in London.” The institute employs in the UK more than 8,000 people, including many investment bankers

Red numbers also in 2016 possible -. More branches make close

Cryan reiterated that the German bank could write again in the red because of the reconstruction in the current year. The restructuring, which should be by the end largely complete, stand 2016 in the foreground. It is important that the Bank slimmer lays and would withdraw from little profitable areas.

In the past year, the bank had closed more than 750,000 accounts. Much of the technology now run based on Apple systems.

In the planned closure of 200 branches in Germany and the associated elimination of 4000 jobs Cryan will soon have clarity. Negotiations with the works council had “terribly long” attracted, he conceded. The uncertainty of who has to go at the end, expresses many of the approximately 100,000 employees worldwide on the mood. “This is an agonizing process,” one employee representative.

The talks with the works befänden now but in the final stages, said Cryan. “I am confident that we will reach an agreement in the next one to two months and then can move forward with the branch closures and job losses.”


Unemployment in Germany: Since reunification never so little … – Tagesspiegel

The number of unemployed in Germany has declined significantly in May. In the Federal Employment Agency (BA) 2.664 million job seekers were registered, as the authority announced in Nuremberg on Tuesday. The were 80,000 less than in April and 98,000 less than a year ago. The labor market was developing a whole remains positive with the expiring spring revival, said BA chief Frank-Jürgen Weise. Employment has grown vigorously.

The demand for labor has increased significantly. By deducting the seasonal fluctuations in unemployment, according to BA back to 11,000 unemployed. Banking Economists had only a drop of 5000 on average expected. In April, unemployment was more than usual like for the season.

Later in the year, experts expect an increasing number of unemployed, as more and more refugees seeking employment. For the full year 2016 they expect new highs in the number of workers and employees at the same time rising unemployment because the labor supply increases greatly.

In Berlin and Brandenburg, the unemployment rate fell from the previous month significantly. In Berlin the number since the Wall fell below ten percent for the first time. In May the rate was 9.7 percent. Compared to April, a decrease of 0.5 percentage points. Compared with May 2015, there are 1, 1 point less. In total there were in Berlin in May 181 166 people out of work. 5260 less than in April and 15,187 less than a year ago. The number of vacancies in May was at 23 974, which was 3953 more than a year ago.

trainees in Berlin should be flexible

In Brandenburg about 4,000 people were unemployed in May less than in April 8000 and less than a year ago. Compared with April, a decline of 0.2 percentage points compared with Mai 2015 by 0.5 points. Overall, the number of unemployed was in Brandenburg in May at 104,921 – the lowest level since reunification.

Jutta Cordt, CEO of Regional Directorate Berlin-Brandenburg of the Federal Employment Agency, speaks of a good sign that one is on the right track. “The positive economic climate in practically every industry offer many opportunities – the job market has almost 44,000 vacancies in the region a very wide range of social security payments.”

tourism brings jobs in Berlin

Christian Henkes, spokesman for the Federal Employment Agency, told the Tagesspiegel, the 24,000 places in Berlin are still open. Jobs for people with a rather lower qualifications can be found particularly in the impact of tourism, which is booming in Berlin still. Here jobs are to be found mainly in gastronomy, but also in the bicycle rental and guided tours. “Tourism is very important for the labor market in Berlin,” says Henke. Currently also seeking the BVG by bus drivers, the Fernbusbranche is still growing. More training places are also available on the craft. As for higher qualifications, offer Berlin start-up scene very good entry opportunities. Here IT specialists are in demand with good English skills.

The newcomers in Berlin would create new jobs, especially common in the retail sector, for example in the furniture trade. “A growing city also brings jobs,” says Henke. Trainees he recommends to be flexible and not to fixate on a dream job. Since there would be in good Brandenburg vacancies, trainees should also look outside the district boundaries. “The train does not move only in one direction.” Especially in the nursing and health there in Brandenburg many vacancies. (with AP)


Shopping on the Internet – Zalando will bind Fashion Brands se – FAZ – Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung

Berlin (dpa) – fashion company to online trading with their brands in the future can completely unwind over Zalando

“the goal is actually: We want to become the digital strategy of our brand partners.”, said the board of the Berlin Internet marketing company, David Schneider, at the second general meeting of the company.

brand companies should be able to set up and manage their own digital stores on the platform. Even former rivals like Zara and H & M wants the company long-term commitment to its platform. Especially when shopping through mobile apps it has become extremely difficult for the fashion company to target customers, Schneider said.

This year alone will Zalando invest 200 million euros in logistics and technology. Above all it is the company about further expand its market share. In the 15 countries where Zalando is active, 420 billion euros annually would generate in fashion retail – have the Berlin it so far only accounts for less than one percent. . “We see why there already have extremely much air to grow,” board member Schneider

said also the company wants to further hone its customer friendliness: The far only testweise introduced delivery day of the order is to be promoted , And who more frequently send back goods, need not fear further that his account will be blocked. The return rate lie for years fairly stable at 50 percent. In future, better images and better size suggestions push this proportion

Zalandos share price weakened recently. After peaking in December, the share fell to the end of May, around a quarter of its value. With a dividend, shareholders may continue not expected for the time being. The company would invest the profits and not throw, said board member Rubin Ritter. Malte Diesselhorst of the German protection combination for security possession called a long-term commitment to the dividend. This could stabilize the last quite strongly fluctuating stock price.

The operating result of the online fashion shipment laid last year by almost a third to EUR 107.5 million to. Were received 55.3 million orders. The company employs some 10 000 employees.

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Competitiveness: Why is it difficult for Germany – FAZ – Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung

Germany less attractive as a business location. A recent study estimated Germany no longer among the top ten most competitive economies in the world. Contributes to this especially the complicated tax policy, where Germany ranks only 52nd place in the ranking. Even France, where traditionally high taxes are due, fares better.

Anna Steiner author: Anna Steiner, editor of the economy.

For the study, the IMD Business School in Lausanne, Switzerland defined four categories of five factors, which in turn were determined by 340 criteria. While the German economy has stagnated since 2014, the Federal Republic of other States must in terms of government efficiency and infrastructure beaten and slips one place.

For the stagnant economic performance makes the WCC primarily a decline in international trade and a weaker national economic responsibility. Regarding international investments will Germany can equal make several places well.

More about

In the area of ​​efficiency international trade especially the tax policy has a negative effect on the overall ranking. Here Germany comes down to the 52nd place – and improved compared to last year even three places. The work of the institutions is considered unsatisfactory.

“The greatest danger for Germany is complacency”

In addition, the risk of political instability according to the study has grown in Germany. Given the growing strength AfD in the last federal election and the poll numbers in recent weeks, this assessment is understandable. According to recent surveys, the current grand coalition no longer would get the majority of votes. The coalition is likely to prove more difficult because of the weakness of the major parties and the strength in the right half of the party spectrum.

Even the so-called Gini coefficient has increased slightly from 0.28 to 0.31. This indicates how large the income inequality in a country is (the higher the coefficient, the greater the inequality).

The infrastructure in Germany is rated poor Since 2013 every year. Besides the basic infrastructure also includes the technological development and scientific potential. But even here there are positive areas: For example, Germany is leading in the number of students in secondary schools

In general, the surveyed executives appreciate the Federal Republic for its eligible employees, the high educational level, the reliable infrastructure and the legal. conditions. negative was significant the little open and positive attitude, the competence of the Government and the little business-friendly environment. IMD director Arturo Bris says: “The greatest danger for Germany is complacency. If it stores the, it comes back into the top ten. “

The good rating in productivity owes Germany especially the middle class. When the number of small and medium enterprises, it is unique among sixty countries considered the top position. The number of trainees, as well as the motivation and productivity of workers suggest a positive impact. To be better here, would service professions are better paid and credibility of managers be improved. This affects currently negative effect on the ranking. Given the diesel scandal at Volkswagen, which made international headlines, and the ongoing problems in the executive office of Deutsche Bank, which is not surprising.

Other countries get massively

In Europe generally applies in particular the public sector as a driver of competitiveness. This is recovering slowly from the financial crisis, so IMD Director Bris. However, unlike Germany, some other European countries are in the fast lane. So the Netherlands could make seven places good, Ireland and Sweden nine still won to four places.

Not only the competition from Western Europe is becoming harder for Germany. Even states from Eastern Europe are pushing increasingly into the sixty strongest economic nations ranking. “The performance of the economies of Eastern Europe is very impressive and very satisfying,” said IMD director Bris. However, he also recalls: “Current economic growth is no guarantee of a growing competitiveness in the future.” Only taking into account other factors could the long-term success be guaranteed



IMD ranking – Austria: As a business location only average – Kleine Zeitung

Updated: 05.31.2016 09:11 IMD ranking

2007 was Austria still eleventh place in international competition ranking of the IMD. Now our country climbed from 26 to 24 back. The US lost its top position in Hong Kong.

top  10

Photo © Sunny Forest – Fotolia

the annual ranking of the Swiss Institute for management development (IMD) has Austria in 2015 in the international competitiveness of a slight recovery from 26th place on 24 certified. 2007 was Austria but still ranked 11th Leader is Hong Kong, followed by Switzerland and last year’s winner USA. General Asia lost, Eastern Europe catching up, it is said in today’s report

The IMD ranking, which is published since 1989, rated four categories:. The economic development of Austria has improved from 21 to 19. The government efficiency improved from 39 to 35. The economic efficiency rose from 28th to 22, the infrastructure quality from 20 to 12. ‘/ P>

Skilled labor in Austria

Of the Single indicators are available for Austria the last place (61) for effective income tax, also the “need for economic and social reforms” Austria is only ranked 60th working, flexibility and management remuneration as well as ratio of taxes and social security are for IMD also very poor (grades 54-58). Top places there are among others the quality of life (2), health infrastructure (3), apprenticeships (3), social responsibility (3), motivation of workers (4), as well as health and environmental (5 each).

Nearly 92 percent of managers surveyed named the skilled workforce as an asset in Austria, 80 percent the reliable infrastructure and 70 percent political stability and predictability. For 65 percent, the good education and the efficient legal system are particularly relevant positive. None (0 percent) called government competence as starch Austria, only 3.2 per cent, the competitive tax system, respectively 6.5 percent economic growth, cost competitiveness and a business-friendly environment.

rich are getting richer

the top 20 countries in the IMD rankings have in particular a business-friendly regulation, a good infrastructure and efficient institutions. Many eastern European countries are working and the Czech Republic as number 27 is already close to the top 20, according to the report. They are followed by the CEE countries Lithuania (30), Estonia (32) and Poland (33) – these countries are with France (32), Spain (34) and Italy (35) par. In particular, the public sector in these countries is improving. Top Ten are Singapore, Sweden, Denmark, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and Canada.

The information gathered for 25 years data also show that the rich richer and the poor get poorer. Since 1995, income inequality has increased between the States, although the pace has recently slowed. “Unfortunately, the problem for many countries that the accumulation of wealth by the rich without social security to the poor there is no benefit,” Arturo Bris, director of the IMD World Competitiveness Center is cited. “Innovation-driven economic growth in poorer countries improve competitiveness, but also increases the inequality. This is an issue that must be taken in the long term to the”.

IMD analyzed over 340 criteria in four categories. In addition, 5,400 managers are deepened on the situation in their country surveyed


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Current study of industrial Research Institute to leading companies in Austria: Siemens, Infineon, Boehringer Ingelheim and Henkel provide directly and indirectly for 42,000 jobs in Austria

image: APA

How can overcome the record unemployment? Before 1 May the Industrialists’ industry clearly against shorter hours “given the requirement for a reduction in working hours in Austria again flatly rejected.


Unemployed: The number of job seekers fall in May to 2.66 million – SPIEGEL ONLINE

Positive development on the German labor market: in May, the number of people without jobs has declined significantly again.

  people at the Federal  employment Agency
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People in the Federal Employment Agency

the number of unemployed in Germany fell further in May. According to the Federal Employment Agency 2.664 million people were without a job. The were 98,000 unemployed less than a year ago, the authority said. The unemployment rate fell by 0.3 points to 6.0 percent.

Compared to April, the number fell by 80,000. “The labor market in general continues to develop positively”, said the head of the Federal Labour Agency, Frank-Jürgen Weise. Unemployment had declined further in the course of the expiring spring revival.

By deducting the seasonal fluctuations in unemployment, according to BA back to 11,000 unemployed. Economists had only a drop of 5000 on average expected. In April, unemployment was stronger than for the season like usual.

Later in the year, experts expect an increasing number of unemployed, as more and more refugees seeking employment. For the full year 2016 they expect new highs in the number of workers and employees at the same time rising unemployment because the labor supply increases greatly.

brk / dpa / Reuters


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The pillars of social security


 Every employee in Germany is compulsory member of the unemployment insurance. The main performance of the insurance is the Unemployment Benefit I (ALG I) , which replaces a portion of the former net income and is paid up to one year after the loss of a point. For older unemployed exceptions. Runs from the payment of ALG I, without a new site was found, then Unemployment Benefit II (ALG II) is paid. The instrument – also known as Hartz IV – was created in 2005 when the former unemployment and welfare benefits have been merged. The contribution rate for unemployment insurance is currently 3.0 percent of gross salary. Employers pay this rate for each employee.


 There are two types of health insurance – the Legal (SHI) and Private (PKV) . Around 90 per cent of workers are compulsorily insured in the GKV. The contribution rate is currently 15.5 percent for all insured. In addition, the health insurance companies may charge independent of income posts. Since early 2009, all flow contributions to a health fund from which they are distributed to the POS. Access to PHI is only self-employed workers and above an income threshold open.


 The contributions are financed by a PAYG system, in which the working people pay the benefits of retirees. Based on the contributions paid, the future pension amount is calculated. Currently, the contribution rate is 19.6 percent . In January 2013, the contribution drops to 18.9 percent. The statutory retirement age is currently being raised gradually from 65 years to 67 years.


 Long-term care is the youngest of the social insurance in Germany. It is a basic insurance that covers part of the cost of care.

Who gets Hartz IV?

 The policy is leading a fierce debate on the further development of Hartz IV – but who refers unemployment benefits actually? SPIEGEL ONLINE has collected demographic characteristics.


school percentage
Even students 4.2
finished school without completion 8.4
special / special Education 1.2
high school 47.2
Realschule 29
Fachhochschule 1.9
High School 7.5
Figures rounded, lack of play 100 percent: no or wrong information; Source: IAB “Panel labor market and social security”



teaching, company training
training percentage
students at general secondary school 4.4
No vocational qualification 37.5
semi-skilled training, auxiliary job 4.3
Berufsfachschule 6.4
foremen, technicians 3.2
Cooperative Education 0.8
Diploma (FH), Bachelor 2.2
Diploma (university) or BA 3.0
Figures rounded, lack of play 100 percent: no or wrong information; Source: IAB “Panel labor market and social security”

immigrant background

immigrant background percentage
No migration background 60
self-contracted 29.8
At least suffered a parent 6.1
At least one grandparent suffered 2.2
Figures rounded, lack of play 100 percent: no or wrong information; Source: IAB “Panel labor market and social security”


disability percentage
Officially established 10.3
Not officially established 86.7
application 2.9
Figures rounded, lack of play 100 percent: no or wrong information; Source: IAB “Panel labor market and social security”

Serious health condition


Serious health condition
Yes 27.8
No 71.9
Figures rounded, lack of play 100 percent: no or wrong information; Source: IAB “Panel labor market and social security”


Many unemployed relate, according to a study by the Institute for Employment occupational research over an extended period Hartz IV. in December 2007 were therefore 78 percent of the beneficiaries at least twelve months without interruption in power terms. With declining number of recipients, the number of long-term recipients hardly decreased. ssu

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Poverty: One in seven children in Germany on welfare depends – SPIEGEL ONLINE

Approximately one in seven children in Germany is dependent on Hartz IV benefits. This emerges from a data analysis of the left-MPs Sabine Zimmermann forth, from citing the news agency dpa.

Thus, last year were affected on average 1.54 million under 15 year olds. These are reported to be around 30,000 more than in the previous year. Data are provided by the Federal Employment Agency.

Depending on the region, there are major differences here. Thus, in Bremen and Berlin with 31.5 percent, almost every third child under 15 years of Hartz IV benefits dependent (end of 2015), as is apparent from the information provided. In Saxony-Anhalt there are accordingly 21.8 percent, in Hamburg 20.4 percent. Percentage Least Affected there in Bavaria with 6.5 percent.

A total of 20.3 percent of the under-15s are Hartz IV depends in East Germany, in Western Germany 13 percent. The most significant increase over the previous year spend it with 2.1 percentage points in Bremen, the most significant downturn of minus 0.7 percentage points in Brandenburg and Saxony.

Just look at it go when it comes to child poverty is not directly to the poverty of the children, but the poverty of their parents and their impact on children, Zimmermann said. “The huge number of Hartz IV relating with children, the many regions still tight labor market reflect with too few jobs and low wages.” The deputy chairman of the Left faction urged the ruling coalition to step up the rule sets for children.

A detailed analysis on child poverty in Germany had the Economic and Social Research Institute (WSI) of the union-friendly Hans Böckler Foundation in January this year published. Accordingly, 19 percent or 2.47 million of all girls and boys in Germany live in families with so little money that they are considered poor or at risk of poverty

More about poverty in Germany.


Monday, May 30, 2016

Price Drama: This is the last chance of the German dairy farmers – THE WORLD

Germany’s ailing dairy farmers are to receive aid amounting to “100 million euros plus X”. The said Federal Agriculture Minister Christian Schmidt (CSU) after Dairy Summit in Berlin on Monday. The package includes, among other livelihood assistance, tax relief and exemption arrangements to repay debt.

At present, around 70,000 dairy farmers in Germany suffer from prices that no longer cover the cost. This is due to an oversupply of milk – not only in Germany but in Europe and worldwide. Payments of some less than 20 cents per liter bring many yards to the edge of their viability.

By this, according to farmers’ representatives also promised million will not change. “This will save not operating,” said the chief executive of Saxon Farmers’ Association, Manfred Uhlemann. NRW Agriculture Minister Johannes Remmel (Green) has a similar view. “The announced grants for businesses are not more than a drop in the ocean,” he said. The results of the talks were disappointing. “The Dairy Summit has brought no breakthrough.”

Twice as expensive, but at a fair price

While policy and association representatives in Berlin talked about ways out of the low price crisis gripped the farmers themselves the initiative. Burkhard Ströcker, director of “The Fair Milk” commercialization (DFM) will, roll up the market – with fairly traded milk

Ströckers company is a new one. way: consumers willingly pay more, and producers benefit guarantees thereof. The “Fair Milk” with the black-red-golden cow as identification is sold in stores usually at prices from 1.19 to 1.29 euros per liter. This places it at the top of the high-priced offers and is more than twice as expensive as the cheapest offers which have leveled off at 0.46 euros per liter. With 0.45 euros producers should also receive more than twice as much as usual in the market. The fair DFM milk is most commonly found in Edeka stores and many farm shops. “We are also in the process to gain a foothold in Rewe” Ströcker said. “We also test the collaboration with discounters.”

Photo: AP At the Brandenburg gate touts the black-red-golden cow for “fair milk”. Cost: 1.19 to 1.29 euros per liter

“We have asked around among consumers,” the DFM Boss. It had been found: the most it is important that farmers receive a fair price for their Mich. However, should farmers who participate, take certain production changes in purchasing. Because the market research has shown even more loudly Stocker: “The consumer does not want genetic engineering, he attaches great importance to animal welfare, and he rejects Turbo cows.”

Thus, they may not use soy feed from overseas farmers, the animals are rather feed “with a particularly high proportion of grass”. Currently, about 40 farms provide fair milk, around 200 more are ready shortly. Behind the marketing company DFM is the Association of German Dairy Farmers (BDM) with several thousand members.

In the usual dairy products, consumers could have no influence on producer prices contrary to general opinion, was on Monday the sobering conclusion of a study of the organization Food Watch. Even if consumers buy expensive milk, which comes through loud Foodwatch “virtually nothing” from farmers to. The Trade Association of Germany explained that the current milk prices were “the result of supply and demand on the world market”. Schmidt stressed structural changes in the dairy market was inevitable.

“We pfuschen farmers aware of the craft”

on fair trade milk many hopes rest. The time seems ripe, as well as other Listings. The milk supply South Germany about sold in parts of Germany their brand “Star Fair”. Milchwerke Berchtesgadener Land from the idyllic village of Piding on the edge of the Alps will pay its farmers currently about 40 cents per kilogram of raw milk – concretely 38.75 cents for conventional milk and 39.85 cents for mountain farmers milk. “Our niche is quality,” says CEO Bernhard Pointner. And there was not a discount price.

In return, however, the requirements are high to around 1,800 farmers, who are grouped together in the cooperative. So the fodder (grasses and herbs) has mainly come from the meadows of the Alps, green genetic engineering is prohibited here, and the cows get additional natural mineral rock salt from Berchtesgaden instead of industrial salt licks.

Photo: picture alliance / dpa Even at the Brandenburg gate have activists of the Association of German dairy farmers (BDM) Wellies erected as a memorial

in addition, the animals are treated mainly homeopathy in case of illness rather than coverage with antibiotics. “We pfuschen farmers aware of the craft,” said Pointner. And the dairy talking to at the quantity control. “Every liter, we have to sell on the spot market, a lot of damage,” says the dairy boss. Currently namely bringing the so-called over milk just 15 cents per kilogram. “This comes at the expense of all the members in the cooperative.” So Berchtesgaden brought its members to the amount of milk to reduce by six percent, after some had begun to increase their sales volumes. “Only in this way we were able to keep the price paid at the end constant. A fair milk producer price is only possible if our farmers are willing to behave also fair in the amount of milk.”

And so is the dairy, which processes around 260 million kilograms of milk annually, choosy in accepting new members. Although now hundreds applications pile up on the desk of Bernhard Pointner. Additions can be the manager but only in the areas of mountain farmers milk and organic milk. Also Ströcker says: “In recent days, the inquiries have heaped.”

pressure from trade do not get the Berchtesgaden apparently. Pointner any case called the trade a “fair partner”. The drinking milk sold these partners for more than twice the price of the entry-level goods. And the butter costs easy one euro more per 250-gram packets. Pointner promises that the additional quantities to the farmer – after deduction of the necessary investment in location and brand communication. “Private withdrawals there in a cooperative not.” Revenue would be paid in full in the form of milk money to farmers. “With every purchase consumers are thus also his voice from.”


Human Rights: Oxfam criticized misnomer in supermarkets – ZEIT ONLINE

German supermarket chains relate fruit plantations, is where massive violation of human rights. This is the conclusion a report by the development organization Oxfam (PDF download), have been consulted for the 200 workers on plantations in Ecuador and Costa Rica. The violations were therefore determined on certified Rainforest Alliance plantations. The seal of the alliance is the most important sustainability certificate for bananas and pineapples.

Thus, the people are exposed at work to a large extent toxic pesticides. Among other things, that comes from the World Health Organization for acute toxicity classified oxamyl for use. In Ecuador, the plantation workers reported also that the products are applied during the work of Sprühflugzeugen. Many sufferers report disabilities, miscarriages and cancer in the vicinity of the plantations. In addition, they often suffer from dizziness, nausea, and skin allergies.

“The supermarkets control aspects of the imported fruits meticulously and give all supplies at least toggling back. But let it be understood that the people who harvest, poisoned it, “says Oxfam study author Franziska Humbert.

The work on the plantations is according to the report not only hazardous to health. Minimum wages are below, overtime not paid, labor rights violated. In order to maintain the conditions unions would systematically suppressed. Workers reported “black lists” with the names of trade unionists.

“The German supermarkets may their profits not continue at the expense of man and nature. You must finally enforce decent working conditions and a fair price,” says Humbert. The policy is called for. “The federal government must commit that their suppliers respect human and labor rights organization.”