Tuesday, May 31, 2016

Long-term unemployed in Germany – The written off – Germany Kultur

By Ulrike Köppchen hear


Customize vacancies and qualifications of the long-term unemployed not together? (Pa / dpa / Stratenschulte)

The economy is booming, new jobs are being created. And yet, the more than a million long-term unemployed in Germany have virtually no chance of a job. Among the biggest “obstacles to placement” belongs unemployment itself – makes it in the long run often ill

“The labor market in April is dominated by the spring revival Unemployment has continued to fall and the demand for labor is to.. remains high. “

Nürnberg, end of April. The Federal Employment Agency presents its monthly labor market data. For some time, the messages from the labor market sound euphoric – although many expect that unemployment will rise again in the course of the year because of immigration. But first is celebrated: In some regions full employment – more is not possible

600,000 vacancies! A record-low unemployment, since reunification, anyway. The number of social insurance contributions increases.

“It thus signals in the sum a good view of the labor market in the coming months.”

There is no question, the upturn in the labor market is there. But not all benefit. Especially, who was a year or more, and thus is considered long-term unemployed, it has very hard to put in professional life back foot.

“We have, in principle, as a two-tier development the decline in unemployment. “

Says political scientist Sabrina Bersheim of the University of Koblenz.

” the people who are unemployed just not so long referring also unemployment compensation because the degradation is holding quite well preceded. and among those are just a long time unemployed and are located in the Hartz IV system, because this is much more difficult.

37.4 percent Lanzeitarbeitslose

Even though there are fewer and fewer unemployed in Germany, but including more and more people that are a year or more without work. Meanwhile, according to official figures 37.4 percent of the unemployed long-term unemployed. Actually, there are even more, says Sabrina Bersheim. Because with a few statistical peculiarities will the number kept artificially small.

Whenever the Federal employment Agency presented its figures for the labor market situation is also Sabrina Bersheim active:. the young political scientist responsible for the project “Original sound labor market”, a collaboration between the University of Koblenz and the Evangelical Association for Labour and social inclusion

“It’s basically a matter that we want to offer an alternative to the official report of the Federal government, the BMAS and the Federal employment Agency, because the official labor market report is also interest-driven, highly complicated even partial and individual aspects, especially in terms of unemployment and long-term unemployment, not so clearly illustrates how we see, and we want to just offer an alternative. “

Approximately one million long-term unemployed, there are, according to official counts now. will Relieves Statistics by so-called “harmful interruptions”.

“If a person who is long-term unemployed, took part in a labor market policy measure or longer was on sick leave than six weeks or a child has maintained or relatives, then one falls from the statistics, therefore, after this time the statistic is counting him as Neuarbeitslosen. Although has since not changed their status, long-term unemployment, de facto, it makes them short-term unemployed. “

How many long-term unemployed actually are in Germany, do not know Sabrina Bersheim. Whether 1.1 million or maybe 1.2 or 1.3 million long-term unemployed – there are definitely too many. Who are these people?

For 20 years, no social security job

Berlin-Neukölln. A residence of the 1920s. Ali Can (name changed, the real name is withheld) is on the way to a client. Twice a week he visits here an old lady goes shopping with her or to the doctor. Or just walk.

The old lady sits already late fine and ready to leave in a wheelchair, with blue flowered dress and gold jewelry on his fingers.

Every morning comes by a nursing service, otherwise the woman alone all day. In conversation, she emphasized how grateful she was that Ali and a colleague twice seen in the week after her and spend time with her.

Ali Can is in her 50s, is from Turkey and has lived since the early 1980s in Germany. Recently he works as a so-called mobility aids for elderly and sick people. has made possible that started the program Social participation in the labor market, the Federal Labour Minister Andrea Nahles last year. This program particularly hard to place long-term unemployed are to be used again to work: people who have health problems or who are especially unemployed. Ali Can is such a case. He had his last social insurance job more than 20 years ago.

“My aunt has since worked in this factory, which was a pharmaceutical factory, and they spoke to me, said, now with us is people set, write times an application. I have it written, I went, they have set me right. “

” That was true with tax card, you have as well earned? ”

“Full well deserved at the time. I have only worked alone four years at night. night shift allowance. At that time was also this Berlin allowance. was really good money. More than 3,000 marks. Was good. “

Can Ali pushing the wheelchair through the supermarket. The old lady wants to buy supplies for the weekend.

“It is one of the lightest. One can very well talk to her and she’s nice somehow, is not difficult. But there are also very difficult clients, clients who have dementia, and which of course you have problems. But then again, remain very patient, which is not always so easy. “

Better than a one Euro job

30 hours per week working Ali Can now and who every day two to three clients. After many years of Hartz IV, he now has a contract until 2018 and will be paid according to minimum wage.

“So financially … bit you have more, but basically you do not feel as if you would be the first labor market. But anyway, it is much, much better than this one-euro job. ”

After losing his job in the 1990s because his department was disbanded, he has for many years not working but living on unemployment benefits and social assistance.

“Only back in early 2000 or so I slowly … thought so it can not go on, must be something to do. it was not until I made this Turkish food specialties Tutorial, a year, so I’ve learned to cook, but that’s no easy job. I thought, well. Then getting any action from the job center, any courses I took part and 2008 I care base course made and at the same time care assistant, so what I do now. I also have certificates. “

but none of them resulted in a regular employment, but only to new one-euro jobs, mostly in the elderly care. Even Ali’s colleague is long-term unemployed and lurches years of a labor market policy measure for the next

Ali and his colleague talk about measures of the job center.

“Then you look further. then comes something else -. something always comes -. the always change the name -. But then again a year out -. Only meant as civil work, then usually some blah … – AGH I have already made -. Yes, exactly. “

the two hauling the wheelchair with the old lady to the apartment on the mezzanine floor. No easy task for the 55-year-old Ali – but he wants to make this work

“I would hope that I will be employed here, for example, sometimes solid, where I work now or. way. That would be great. Otherwise … what can you want? More money. Every now and then go vacation, which I have not done forever. Even 18 years ago. The last time I was in 1998. “

These are fairly modest wishes. But even the most unlikely to be fulfilled. Ali Can is one of the most labor market Person: Without university degree and professional training he never got on the German labor market over unskilled jobs

“No, I never believed in it that I can do something here. what can be professionally. is that perhaps in the education. No idea. but it is so. maybe I need a psychologist, not Administrator. “

job seekers wait on  30.03.2005 in the hall of its own operation for  work in Merseburg. (Waltraud Grubitzsch) long-term unemployed have little chance of re-entry into the labor market. (Waltraud Grubitzsch)

Typical “obstacles to placement”

Older, no vocational training, immigrant background – such features are typical of a long-term unemployed. In the jargon of the Federal Employment Agency that is “obstacles to placement”. Sabrina Bersheim:.

“These are then the factors that make it difficult for him to find a job This task includes, for example, older age, ie over 50 to be a single parent, caring responsibilities have to have a migration background and especially to have a missing or low skill. and a very important point are just too physical disabilities. for long-term unemployed usually more of these factors come together, and which make the people of course simply the job search. “

About half of the long-term unemployed has no or only a very low professional qualification. Others may have an education, but it is outdated. so far only simple activities are suitable for many long-term unemployed. And there is on the German labor market is less. Some labor market experts, this is only half the story. For there may well still be jobs for unskilled workers: almost every fifth vacancy is in the range of helper activities. This does not mean that only apply Unskilled for such activities. Because – shortage of skilled labor or not – many qualified people can not find work at the level of their training. Sigrid Betzelt, Professor of Social Sciences at the University of Economics and Law in Berlin:

“The structures of the labor market have still other problematic indicator which engage again in the problem of long-term unemployment that yes very many of these so-called simple activities – at trucking companies, the delivery service, across many service sectors – be made of overqualified people who, in some cases have a vocational training even a university education, which carry out simple activities that naturally loose someone without such training could perform. “

But the employer rather provide people with a completed vocational training one, even if this has technically nothing to do with the advertised position.

“Someone who has already completed training provided is deemed reliable, performance-oriented and so on. While people who do not have, as less motivated are assessed less powerful. But this is basically a discrimination against people who have not done for various reasons. That’s partly indeed young people who simply would need an entry in the labor market and then could qualify one parallel also. That is because these two problematic labor market structures of unterwertiger employment and long-term unemployment are a perfect match. “

One of the biggest hurdles for long-term unemployed back to work, the unemployment themselves. They changed the concerned .

long-term unemployment causes illness

“Once they naturally suffer the most materially very difficult situation. Then long-term unemployment often with health risks associated, so strong emotional stress by this exclusion from society tends, which may also be accompanied by physical symptoms. “

… says the labor market expert Sigrid Betzelt. It is a vicious circle, from which come the victims usually barely. Many are unemployed because they have health problems and are not powerful enough. But unemployment itself makes them even sicker and even less efficient.

Adamy : “And what makes people, if you constantly looking for work, there is no stable employment, is busy today, tomorrow is unemployed again, the day after tomorrow again in a one-euro job, then unemployed again, then maybe in temporary work, which brings enormous effort on the one hand with it, but also leads that you can not also come from a financially tight situation. “

Wilhelm Adamy, board member of the DGB and there for labor market policies responsible.

hopeless, exhausted, resigned

researchers have examined how long-term unemployment changed the person concerned and this typical pattern found. Who is unemployed, first trying most intense, back to work. If that does not he exist or sometime down and stops looking

Betzelt:. “People are desperate, are exhausted, the identity breaks slowly in together, and that makes the people were, nor resigned. at the same time they continue to suffer from under this loss of status, ie, it is not that the people would be fully reconciled at this stage, then, yes, it so are doing quite well, but they continue to suffer still very much under this perceived as a loss of status loss of self, quasi their own identity. “

Finally, many long-term unemployed pull back completely from the company.

“This is individually rational. to just not to be constantly faced with the ‘deficit’, to ‘set up’, I’d say so commonly …”

… in environments where they are more or less to themselves. In which for many a one euro or mini-job is the greatest feeling and in which specify adolescents seriously as career aspirations “Hartz IV”. The objective is not only that they do not know it from their parents differently. They also suspect that it is hardly worthwhile for them to make an effort. Because the social advancement promise – if you’re just hardworking and strives to be at least have their own children even better – no longer works. DGB board member Wilhelm Adamy:

“I myself have eight years attended elementary school and had just started then, on the second chance education further qualifications me, but in our time, you knew the future is positive . occupied youths who attend secondary school today, have a total likely to develop much, much harder, their own talent, as was the case in my time “

between question the author.: But why?! The possibilities are still on the second chance, and it is also encouraged. Anyone who wants can!

“Is it because only the will of the individual or to the environment to be in some ways there? When I grow up in an environment where more social problems are, the greater must his individual effort to get out of this environment can and to have the strength to say, I am focused to actually go my own way. “

” Incredible socially explosive “

For a time the specific issue of long-term unemployment of the policy has been largely ignored – or to put it, that the market will judge it matter if the upturn once is there and again more workers were needed. Meanwhile, it has become clear that this did not work: A difficult or impossible-to-place part of over a million people left over. And no society can afford that are inherited in certain contexts poverty and unemployment growing up a generation without opportunities and prospects, warns sociologist Sigrid Betzelt:

“The simple poses incredible explosives. since you do not have to go up to the terrorist attacks, but also could be seen in this series, which is of economic-economic perspective truly scandalous that one affords there. “

And as long-term unemployment is to be tackled now stronger, it is out of politics. But it works well?

“Andreas Groicher my name. I am the personnel officer of the company Dussmann Service and looking forward that you are here. They are for contract cleaning here …”

The job center in Berlin-Lichtenberg. A sober conference room on the fifth floor with a projector, flip chart and horseshoe-aligned tables. Front of the speaker with his notebook, next to the press secretary and a young blond woman sitting in jeans and Businessjackett.

“Yes, hello! Franziska Janicke my name, am since May 2015 Betriebsakquisiteurin in Job Center Lichtenberg under the ESF program to reduce long-term unemployment. “

Franziska Janickes task is to mediate long-term unemployed in the primary labor market is. It must therefore to find a suitable and interested candidates and to give to other businesses that are willing this a chance. However, according to a survey want to set any long-term unemployed two thirds of the companies. Franziska Janicke also has not only positive experience in the operation acquisition, although the job center pays up to 75 percent wage subsidies to compensate for a possibly long period of familiarization or lower job performance.

“Those who are skeptical which mostly remain skeptical “

… but there are also others:

“. Since I had now only just acquired a company in Facility is -Management active, and since the manager actually said, we take it in part because it is important to give people a chance. because five people who have imagined and now signed three of whom had a contract for two years ., a lady in part-time and two men in full-time “

today will again such a job interview instead: The building service Dussmann wants to hire cleaners. Three candidates are on Franziska Janickes list. Published is one.

Window Washer, labor, labor  market, economic (dpa / pa / Kumm) Even in the low-wage sector, the qualification is often not enough. (Dpa / pa / Kumm)

“What to bring at least – so it also stands high – is motivation What is. , we will see that you can also increase, but without your own motivation, you would not be sitting here today, that at least is there ever a base there, on which you can build … and reliability! “

“on time and reliably take the workplace and because the tasks do, is for the cleaning of buildings, is in principle for all projects in life … whether the work is, you will be able to be so successful. in an industry in which you can learn a lot, you’ll manage your own motivation as well. you just have to want something. Then there for us professionals, you will see the. “

personnel Officer Andreas Although Groicher sounds just like a social worker, but he insists that he is not here because Dussmann good would do. But because it has become increasingly difficult in recent years, despite wage of 9.80 euros, to find staff for cleaning, catering and security.

“We have to occupy a lot of places and they can partially filled. In the service industry, it is precisely such that the staff, which we have just come from a social environment precisely where, for example, a conventional application is already an obstacle. If this obstacle and we this application of may not even get industrious people, we’ll have to go where these people are, and that’s usually just here in the job centers “

” Industrial cleaning -. you have the ever made -?.. Yes Almost a year “

with today’s candidates seem to have Andreas Groicher luck. Even retraining as Glass and window cleaners, the candidate be presented.

“Then you are already a real specialist. Currently we have a place in Marzahn. That would be from Monday to Friday five hours daily, and always starts from 15 o’clock. “

the customer haws around a bit and then puts it out with it. The job is too far away from his home. In public transport it get panic attacks. And, no, he had not a bicycle. No driver’s license, and of course a car.

“Yes, then is of course difficult. Because a body which is for you around the corner, we just do not offer.”

“I’m not from the world.”

“exactly, you are not so out of the world, perhaps there is indeed times something . “

” Good, glad you were there. Maybe we have a chance to get even in the testing. you should also think again, cycling is really a good alternative. “

a drop in the ocean

the ESF program for integrated long-term unemployed in the primary labor market is only one of several special programs on were launched federal or at the state level in the last two years. Undisputed they are not. The most common complaint which is made them symbolic politics. Sabrina Bersheim:

“One can suspect a calculation behind there so if you’re a little angry and says that if you as in launching a special program, then you can media attention PR moderately commercialize. Then you get a lot of attention and can tell you are doing just what the people “

one does what -. but only for a few people. In Jobcenter Lichtenberg example are on the ESF program 200 long-term unemployed get a job. Nationwide, the job center have applied for just 24,000 places. Given more than a million long-term unemployed that is little more than a drop in the bucket. The funding provided for the unemployed after the Hartz IV system, however, has been considerably reduced in recent years.

Adamy: “to be integrated Chances of long-term unemployed, who are dependent on Hartz IV today in the labor market, are worse than in 2007″.

Bersheim: “We have in the last five years a decline in the so-called inclusion budgets – that’s just the money that is provided for the labor market promotion in the Hartz IV system -, a decline of 40 percent at people. that could promote but, there has been a decline of ten percent. So it all depends often from the political argument, of course, we have shortened, but we also have fewer unemployed. but it is just stop all proportion.

In addition, would hardly support actions that led to a vocational certificate, says Sabrina Bersheim It’s all about fast switching

Adamy:.. “Each fifth long-term unemployed who finds a body, they found only in the agency. Then they are but after a relatively short time unemployed. Or they just found a job in commerce or in the hospitality industry, and we have found that the working conditions, the long-term unemployed find it about each is finished fifth after one month. “

Qualification Only is often insufficient

But even if more would be invested in sustainable qualification, alone with labor market policies can not fight long-term unemployment. given the social, physical and psychological problems of those affected must be reinforced. So would the job center and welfare work hand in hand:

Adamy:. “there is quite model tests, where the recruitment agency and the assisting force of the youth office sitting together at a desk

Wilhelm Adamy has so visited a project.

“. I spoke with the people concerned and a single mother, what is special about this model project for the woman who has been placed in work, said: humanity.”

the employment agencies however have recognized that it does not help in some cases to enforce a mediation in the labor market, unless other problems were solved before:

“here, the representative of the Youth Services said: We need the mediation at the moment Reset, because the social stabilization of the household is required then I asked the agent. If you are not sitting here now at the desk, what would you have done then? He said: I would theoretically called the youth services, but I would not have had the time and probably would have imposed sanctions. “

Ultimately, however, can not obscure the fact that not all long-term unemployed in the labor force even the best model projects will incorporate blank. This is also the German Social Law

Betzelt:. “Anyone who can Krauch reasonably and is still capable of three hours a day what to do Efficient, applies here as capable of working.”

and flows so well in the unemployment statistics with a.

“I think that these three hours really a joke. First, we have the labor market not for that, three hours really very marginal, and in other countries it is different, the background is indeed, in Germany, the disability pension’s been very reduced, also the rehabilitation sector, and attempts have been made with all these reversals to relieve the welfare state , but it does obviously not “

Sigrid Betzelt pleads far for thinking to deal with the issue of long-term unemployment all over again:

“. So it would make sense to really make a new charge and to consider: Okay, what do we do with this million? And you have to there already again sort stronger and consider whom you can still motivate them to be trained according to the skills and then to enter the labor market? For whom might a social labor market would be useful? And who would have really berenten? And which one can then also satisfied. “


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